Research

This page has links to research papers related to electromagnetic field (EMF) influences on human physiology. In addition, certain research documents or summary documents are available here for download.

If there are papers or links that you think might be appropriate to this topic and would like to see them added here, please provide details in an email. There is a Contact link above that you can click to find my address.

For Dirty Electricity related papers, Click Here

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IARC Monographs On The Evaluation Of Carcinogenic Risks To Humans RadioFrequency Electromagnetic Fields Mono_102.pdf

This publication represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, which met in Lyon, 24-31 May 2011. This report was published April 2013.

Highlights of Findings

The bulk of evidence came from reports of the INTERPHONE study, a very large international, multicentre case–control study and a separate large case–control study from Sweden on gliomas and meningiomas of the brain and acoustic neuromas. While affected by selection bias and information bias to varying degrees, these studies showed an association between glioma and acoustic neuroma and mobile-phone use; specifically in people with highest cumulative use of mobile phones, in people who had used mobile phones on the same side of the head as that on which their tumour developed, and in people whose tumour was in the temporal lobe of the brain (the area of the brain that is most exposed to RF radiation when a wireless phone is used at the ear). The Swedish study found similar results for cordless phones.

You may Left Click below to read the PDF document, or you may Right Click below to download the PDF document.

IARC_Monographs

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Study by Carl Blackman, Phd

Here Blackman uses the term “modulation” to refer-to the pulsing. “Modulation” means changing something about the 900 Mhz carrier and if we “turn it off and on” (pulsing) that is called Amplitude Modulation.

Blackman mentions various biological effects such as:
– causing changes in cell growth, differentiation and proliferation as a “cellular” basis for cancer
– changes in brain tissue chemistry from EMF
– changes in nerve growth factors from EMF, especially in children
– EMF induced changes on cell surfaces can dramatically alter homeostatic mechanisms

This study is included as a PDF.

Disruption-by-the-Modulating-Signal-Blackman.pdf

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Effects of Wi-Fi Signals On The P300 Component of Event-related Potentials During An Auditory Hayling Task.

Abstract

The P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs) is believed to index attention and working memory (WM) operation of the brain. The present study focused on the possible gender-related effects of Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on these processes. Fifteen male and fifteen female subjects, matched for age and education level, were investigated while performing a modified version of the Hayling Sentence Completion test adjusted to induce WM. ERPs were recorded at 30 scalp electrodes, both without and with the exposure to a Wi-Fi signal. P300 amplitude values at 18 electrodes were found to be significantly lower in the response inhibition condition than in the response initiation and baseline conditions. Independent of the above effect, within the response inhibition condition there was also a significant gender X radiation interaction effect manifested at 15 leads by decreased P300 amplitudes of males in comparison to female subjects only at the presence of EMF. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that Wi-Fi exposure may exert gender-related alterations on neural activity associated with the amount of attentional resources engaged during a linguistic test adjusted to induce WM.

Click Here link to NIH Abstract

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The Controversial FCC (so-called) Safe Exposure Limits

Proponents of the proliferation of EMF for various purposes, will often cite that the EMF strengths that are being referred-to are within the FCC so-called safe limits for exposure.

Researchers, public officials and citizens will counter those statements with arguments, that (to just name a few):

  • the FCC limits do not address long term, chronic exposure.
  • the FCC limits are considerably higher than other government (other countries) limits.
  • the FCC limits are considerably (1000’s to 100,000s times) higher  than studies have shown produce ill effects.
  • the FCC limits address only thermal heating of tissues.
  • the FCC limits do not take into account the so-called “pulsed effect”.

Interestingly, other agencies within the US Federal government agree that the FCC limits are inadequate for a variety of reasons and they have gone on record (public record) to recommend that the FCC overhaul it’s limits.

One such agency is The Department of Health and Human Services, the National Institute For Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

In a letter to the FCC, NIOSH clearly conveys that the FCC limits need overhauling. In a compelling, 173 page letter and research report attachments, NIOSH presents a convincing case.

This letter (and attachments) are dated January 1994.

NIOSH made the letter (and attachments) available as a series of PDF documents available below.
47_CFR_Part_1_ET_Docket_No_93-62_NIOSH_comments_on_FCC_guidelines_1993_001-025.pdf

47_CFR_Part_1_ET_Docket_No_93-62_NIOSH_comments_on_FCC_guidelines_1993_026-050.pdf

47_CFR_Part_1_ET_Docket_No_93-62_NIOSH_comments_on_FCC_guidelines_1993_051-075.pdf

47_CFR_Part_1_ET_Docket_No_93-62_NIOSH_comments_on_FCC_guidelines_1993_076-100.pdf

47_CFR_Part_1_ET_Docket_No_93-62_NIOSH_comments_on_FCC_guidelines_1993_101-125.pdf

47_CFR_Part_1_ET_Docket_No_93-62_NIOSH_comments_on_FCC_guidelines_1993_126-150.pdf

47_CFR_Part_1_ET_Docket_No_93-62_NIOSH_comments_on_FCC_guidelines_1993_151-173.pdf

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Study, Dr. Andrew Goldsworthy on Bio Effects

This study refers to a wide range of frequencies from low power line frequencies, sometimes referred-to as ELF, (extremely low frequency) all the way up to WiFi frequencies 2.4 Ghz (gigahertz, i.e. microwave frequencies).

Note as you peruse the study that there is reference to the pulsed effect of these EMF signals.

Here is a brief quote from Goldworthy’s paper:

Why Microwaves Are Particularly Damaging
The frequency of the carrier wave is also important. Higher frequencies such as the
microwaves used in cell phones, WiFi and DECT phones, are the most damaging. Our
present exposure to man-made microwaves is about a million billion billion (one followed by eighteen zeros) times greater than our natural exposure to these frequencies. We did not evolve in this environment and we should not be too surprised to find that at least some people may not be genetically adapted to it. As with most populations faced with an
environmental change, those members that are not adapted either become ill, die
prematurely or fail to reproduce adequately. Ironically, those who are electromagnetically
intolerant may be better equipped to survive since they are driven to do whatever they can to avoid the radiation.

Biol_Effects_EMFs_Dr_Andrew_Goldsworthy_2012 NZ2rev.pdf

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SENSORY TRANSDUCTION AS A PROPOSED MODEL FOR BIOLOGICAL DETECTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS

Harold Sonnier PhD and Andrew A. Marino PhD

ABSTRACT
Laboratory studies of the biological effects of low-frequency electromagnetic
fields (EMFs) have demonstrated that the fields can produce or alter a wide range
of phenomena. Explaining the diversity of the reported effects is a central
problem. Our basic hypothesis is that the effects are generally indirect, and arise
as a consequence of sensory transduction of the fields. In this view, EMF
detection and its biological consequences occur in different types of cells.
Experimental verification of the hypothesis will ultimately require data showing
that the interaction of EMFs with tissue results in biological changes that are the
same as or similar to changes that occur during sensory transduction. The goal
was to identify the specific phenomena that would be expected to occur if the
hypothesis were true. We therefore analyzed the presently accepted models of
sensory transduction in the somatic and special senses. Many kinds of processes
were identified in connection with transduction of different kinds of stimuli, but
we found that a change in conductance of a membrane ion channel in a neuron or
a neuroepithelial cell was the earliest process that occurred in all forms of sensory
transduction. Evidence from an appropriate model excitable cell or tissue that
EMFs affect membrane currents or membrane potential would therefore support
the hypothesis that EMF transduction is a species of sensory transduction.

SensoryTransduction.pdf

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ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE CLASSROOM
by Andrew A. Marino, Ph.D.

Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are present in every area of our
environment, including the classroom and the home. Dr. Marino
shows that although they cannot be seen, EMFs may have a
powerful effect on those exposed to high doses of them over a
period of time. In describing EME sources outside the school, as
well as inside the classroom, he answers questions that teachers
and other school staff members often ask about the hazards of
computers and other classroom equipment.

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE CLASSROOM.pdf

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Mobile-phone Pulse Triggers Evoked Potentials.
S. Carrubba, C. Frilot II, A.L. Chesson Jr. & A.A. Marino.

Mobile-phone Pulse

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Electromagnetic Energy In The Environment And Human Disease

Andrew
 A.
Marino, 
Ph.D.

Professor
 Department
 of 
Orthopaedic
 Surgery

LSU 
Health
 Sciences
 Center


Electromagnetic Energy In The Environment And Human Disease.pdf

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Dr. Martin Pall, interviewed by Dr. Joseph Mercola ( mercola.com ).
This is a brilliant expose’ on the mechanisms in the human physiology, when the human physiology is subjected to EMF.

Dr. Martin Pall Interview

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UC San Diego School of Medicine Faculty Explains Sever Impact of EMF On Population

Dr.Golomb_UC-SanDiego-School-of-Medicine

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Dirty Electricity Related, Paper 1

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Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Evidence for a novel neurological syndrome
D.E. McCarty, S. Carrubba, A.L. Chesson, Jr., C. Frilot II, E. Gonzalez-Toledo & A.A. Marino. Int. J. Neurosci. 121:670–676, 2011.

The author of this blog ( http://www.rfreduce.com/robertsblog ) believes that the following research paper is particularly relevant to the phenomenon of Dirty Electricity.

Dirty Electricity is a term-of-art that refers-to high frequency voltages and currents on traditional utility wiring. This means voltages and currents that are of a higher frequency than the underlying 50/60 Hz Alternating Current (AC) power. This Dirty Electricity energy can reach up into the millions of cycles per second (several MegaHz)

Dirty Electricity has many sources/causes, and most often comes from the vast array of switching regulators found within countless electronic devices, lighting and appliances.

Dirty Electricity also is produced, at a significant intensity by switching inverters that convert Direct Current DC, to AC.

In off-grid and solar/wind augmentation installations, (residential, commercial, industrial, utility-based, etc), it is usually the ultimate need to supply AC. Since solar and wind generators typically produce DC, then an inverter is needed to convert this DC, to AC.

These inverters leak their base switching frequency (typically 16 Khz to 20 Khz) onto the AC lines and also leak harmonics (multiples) of those base switching frequencies.

This (leakage) is Dirty Electricity.

In the following paper, the authors note that a constant, 60 Hz-only EMF (electromagnetic field) did not seem to cause distress or symptoms of illness for the test subject.

When the 60 Hz field was pulsed (turned on and off) symptoms immediately arose.

The pulsing of the EMF that is described in the paper, is, in this blog author’s opinion, highly similar to the Dirty Electricity produced by inverters.

Full paper is here: Read the study here -Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Evidence for a novel neurological syndrome

Follow Up 1

Follow Up 2

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Dirty Electricity Related, Paper 2

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The Effects of Low-Frequency Environmental-Strength Electromagnetic Fields on Brain Electrical Activity: A Critical Review of the Literature

SIMONA CARRUBBA AND ANDREW A. MARINO
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, LSU Health Sciences Center,
Shreveport, Louisiana, USA

In the following paper, the authors provide an extensive and authoritative examination of Low Frequency induced effects on humans and animals. These Low Frequencies, are, for the most part, within the frequency range that is referred-to as Dirty Electricity.

The results of this study are compelling. Here are quotations from the paper.

We showed that a fundamental effect of an EMF stimulus is the triggering of onset and offset evoked potentials in the brain (Carrubba et al., 2007a), and we described a procedure by which their presence can be demonstrated consistently, in every subject, with the requisite statistical reliability (Carrubba et al., 2008).

After the first concerns that man-made electromagnetic fields in the environment might be a hazard to public health were raised almost 40 years ago (Becker, 1972; Adey, 1976), the main counter-argument was that the reported EMF-induced bioeffects were inconsistent, thereby indicating only the existence of inconspicuous experimental errors, not real biological processes.

There never was any reliable evidence that the argument was true. Now, there is clear evidence the argument is false; magnetosensory evoked potentials elicited by EMFs can be detected in essentially every subject examined when the proper form of analysis is used (Carrubba et al.,
2008).

Full paper is here: The Effects of Low-Frequency Environmental-Strength Electromagnetic Fields on Brain Electrical Activity: A Critical Review of the Literature

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